• People waving Russian and Syrian Flags
    Russia in Syria: An Unequivocal Return to the Middle East?
    Robert Mason

    This article argues that President Putin's securitization agenda stems from the second Chechen War and is far more pragmatic concerning Russian engagement in the Middle East than former Soviet policies.

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Turkey and Syria: When "Soft Power" Turned Hard
Jeremy Salt

The onset of the so-called Arab Spring in late 2010 took governments around the world by surprise, and Turkey's Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi, AKP) government was no exception.

Russia's Syria War: A Strategic Trap?
Emil Aslan Souleimanov / Valery Dzutsati

Within three years of direct military involvement in the Syrian civil war, Russia — along with Iran and Iran-backed Shiite militia — has succeeded in stemming the tide of local insurgent groups, helping to bring under Assad's control most of the w

Deep States in MENA
Robert Springborg

Various publications then sought to define the term "deep state," generally agreeing that it originated in Turkey, where "secretive conspiracies hatched in the corridors of power and removed from the democratic process shadow the nation's politics